Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Geography Chapter 2

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Geography Chapter 2 Answers Solutions:

Samacheer Kalvi 9th Standard New Social Science Book Back 1 Mark and 2 Mark Question & Answers PDF uploaded and available below. 9th standard new Syllabus 2022 to 2023 Book Back Question & Answer available for both English and Tamil Mediums. Samacheer Kalvi Class 9 Social Geography Book Chapter 2 Lithosphere – II Exogenetic Processes Answers/Solutions in English are provided on this page. 9th Std New Social History Book consists of 11 units, Geography Book consists of 8 units, Civics book portion consists of 6 units, Economics book portion consists of 5 units, All Social Science Book Back One, and Two Mark Answers/Solutions are given below.

Check Unit wise and  Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Book Back Solutions Answers PDF format for Free Download. English, Tamil, Maths, Science, and Social Science Book Back Question and Answer is available in PDF. Samacheer Kalvi Class 9th Std Social Book Back Answers PDF. Check Social Science – History, Geography, Civics, Economics Answers below. See below for the 9th New Syllabus Book Back Solution guide free PDF download:


Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Book Back Solutions Guide:

Samacheer Kalvi  9th std Social History Subject 1 Mark and 2 Mark Solutions PDF available below. Click the Download option to download the book back 1 Mark & 2 Mark questions and Solutions/Answers. Take the printout and use it for exam purposes. Samacheer Kalvi 9th Social Science Geography Chapter 2 is given below.

Social Geography Book Back Solution

Chapter 2 – Lithosphere – II Exogenetic Processes


I. Choose the best answer:

1. The disintegration or decomposition of rocks is generally called as ___________
(a) weathering
(b) erosion
(c) transportation
(d) deposition
Answer: (a) weathering

2. The process of the levelling up of land by means of natural agents.
(a) aggradation
(b) degradation
(c) gradation
(d) none
Answer: (c) gradation

3. _______ is seen in the lower course of the river.
(a) Rapids
(b) Alluvial fan
(c) Delta
(d) Gorges
Answer: (c) Delta

4. Karst topography is formed due to the action of _________
(a) Glacier
(b) Wind
(c) Sea waves
(d) Ground Water
Answer: (d) Ground Water

5. Which one of the following is not a depositional feature of a glacier?
(a) cirque
(b) Moraines
(c) Drumlins
(d) Eskers
Answer: (a) cirque

6. Deposits of fine silt blown by wind is called as ___________
(a) Loess
(b) Barchans
(c) Hamada
(d) Ripples
Answer: (a) Loess

7. Stacks are formed by __________.
(a) Wave erosion
(b) River erosion
(c) Glacial erosion
(d) Wind deposion
Answer: (a) Wave erosion

8. ______ erosion is responsible for the formation of cirque
(a) wind
(b) glacial
(c) river
(d) underground water
Answer: (b) glacial

9. Which one of the following is a second-order landform?
(a) Asia
(b) Deccan Plateau
(c) Kulu valley
(d) Marina Beach.
Answer: (b) Deccan Plateau

II. Match the following:

  1. Distributaries     – (i) glacial action
  2. Mushroom rock – (ii) action of sea wave
  3. Eskers                  – (iii) Lower course of the river
  4. Stalactites            – (iv) Aeolian process
  5. Cliff                       – (v) karst topography


  1. – iii
  2. – iv
  3. – i
  4. – v
  5. – ii

III. Consider the given statements and choose the right option given below:

1. (i) ‘I’ Shaped valley is an erosional feature of the river
(ii) ‘U’ Shaped valley is an erosional feature of the glacier
(iii) ‘V-Shaped valley is an erosional feature of the glacier
(a) (i), (ii) & (iii) are right
(b) (i) & (ii) are right
(c) (i) & (iii) are right
(d) only (i) is right
Answer: (ii) is correct

2. Statement I: Running water is an important agent of gradation
Statement II: The work of the river depends on the slope of land on which it flows
(a) Statement I is false II is true
(b) Statement I and II are false
(c) Statement I is true II is false
(d) Statement I and II are true
Answer: (d) Statement I and II are true

3. Statement: Limestone regions have less underground water.
Reason: Water does not percolate through limestone.
(a) The statement is right, reason is wrong.
(b) The statement is wrong, Reason is right.
(c) The statement and reason are wrong.
(d) The statement and reason are right.
Answer: (c) The statement and reason are wrong.

IV. Answer in brief:

1. Define weathering.
Weathering is the disintegration and decomposition of materials of the earth’s crust by their exposure to the atmosphere.

2. What do you mean by biological weathering?
Biological weathering occurs due to the penetration and expansion of plants & roots, earthworms, burrowing animals (rabbits, rats), and some human activities.

3. Mention the three courses of a river with any two landforms associated with each course.
The course of a river is divided into

  1. The Upper course – V-shaped valleys, gorges
  2. The middle course – Alluvial fans, flood plains
  3. The lower course – Delta and Estuary.

4. What are the ox-bow lakes?

  1. Meanders in due course of time become almost a complete circle with narrow necks.
  2. This in turn gets abandoned and forms a lake.
  3. This is called an oxbow lake.

5. How does a sea cave differ from a sea arch?
(a) Sea Arch:

  1. When two caves approach one another from either side of a headland and unite them from an arch.
  2. Eg: Neil Island, Andaman, and Nicobar

(b) Cave:

  1. Caves are hollows that are formed by the dissolution of limestone rocks when carbon dioxide in the air turns into carbonic acid after its reaction with water.
  2. They vary in size and shape.
  3. Eg: Guptadham caves in Western Bihar.

6. List out any four Karst topographical areas found in India.

  1. Guptadham caves – Western Bihar
  2. Pandav caves Pachmuri – Madhya Pradesh
  3. Kutumsar – Bastar district in Chattisgarh
  4. Borra caves of Visakhapatnam – Andhra Pradesh

7. What do you mean by a hanging valley?

  1. Hanging valleys are typically formed when the main valley has been widened and deepened by glacial erosion, leaving the side valley cut off abruptly from the main valley below.
  2. The steep drop from the hanging valley to the main valley floor usually creates cascading waterfalls – Eg. Yosemite falls, California, USA.

8. Define
(a) Moraine
(b) Drumlin
(c) Esker.
(a) Moraine:

  • Landforms formed by the glacial deposits of valley (or) continental glaciers are termed as moraines.
  • They are of various shapes and sizes, like the ground, terminal, and lateral moraines, etc.

(b) Drumlin: Drumlins are deposits of glacial moraines that resemble giant inverted teaspoons (or) half cut eggs.
(c) Esker: Long narrow ridges composed of boulders gravel and sand deposited by streams of melting water which run parallel to a glacier are called eskers.

9. Mention the various features formed by wind erosion.
Some of the erosional landforms of wind are
(a) Mushroom rocks
(b) Inselbergs and
(c) Yardangs.

(a) Mushroom rocks:

  1. When a rock’s bottom is soft, the sand-laden winds blow against it and wear it down.
  2. By the constant wearing down action of the wind, the bottom gets eroded away to form a mushroom like structure.

(b) Inselbergs:

  1. Certain hard rocks like igneous rocks are more resistant to wind action.
  2. Such isolated residual hills rising abrupt by from their surroundings are turned as inselbergs.

(c) Yardangs:

  1. In arid regions, certain rocks have hard and soft layers arranged vertically.
  2. When winds blow over these rocks, the soft layers get eroded leaving irregular crests. These are called yardangs.

10. What is a wave-cut platform?
Flat surface found at the foot of the sea cliffs are called as wave-cut platforms, the wave-cut platform is also referred to as beach, shelf, terrace, and plain.

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